• Farmers´ perception and adaptation measures of rice cultivation under climate change and vulnerability context in Nawalparasi district

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  • 28/02/2016

This BSc thesis study was conducted by Anisha Giri, student at the Tribhuvan University, as part of the SAF-BIN project in Nepal in 2014.

Rajahar and Pithauli  (VDC)1 are main rice producing areas in Nawalparasi district in Nepal. Yet, these locations are highly affected by changing rainfall patterns and farmers are facing problems in crop production. Documentation of local challenges and adaptation strategies of farmers in this area rare, however, rare.The overall aim of the study was to examine the rice farmers’ perception and adaption practices to climate change effects in Pitahli and Rjahar VDCs of Nawalparasi. From June-August 2014 primary as well as secondary data were collected. Primary data were obtained from 70 household surveys among SAF-BIN  (62%) and non SAF-BIN famers (38%), four focus group discussions and key informant interviews e.g. with district agriculture development officers and farmers. Secondary data were screened for information on time series on climate variability or climate change impacts, collected e.g. from the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology or the Central Bureau of Statistics. The majority of the farmers have experienced erratic rainfall, both in frequency and intensity. 96% reported an increase in temperature and 85% observed a delayed onset of the monsoon with shorter lasting periods compared to ten years ago. Moreover, the farmers experienced that the number of drought days increased, leading to water scarcity in surface and groundwater. Regarding the effects of climate change on the rice cultivation, insect pest e.g. paddy stem borer or leaf folder, drought, and untimely rainfall, were mentioned as the major reasons for crop failure. Among the major adaptation strategies applied at farm level were:  increased use of manure (96%), use of pesticides (94%), cutting bunds (86%), early stage seedlings (82%) and climate smart varieties (66%), obtained within the SAF-BIN project based on a mixture of traditional and introduced knowledge. The positive adaption strategies developed should be spread to other farmers in this area and the awareness of professionals working in governmental and non‐governmental organizations should be raised to take up the adaption strategies.


1 Village development committee